Software-based musical instruments have controls for input, a sound synthesizer for output, and mappings connecting the two. An effective layout of controls considers how many degrees of freedom each has, as well as the overhead of selecting each one while performing. An isolated mapping from one control to one synthesis parameter needs an appropriate choice of proportional, integral or derivative control (the control's value, or that value's rate of change, drives the synthesis parameter's value, or that value's rate of change). Beyond this, a compound mapping cross-coupling several controls and synthesis parameters can surprisingly increase the performer's intuitive understanding of the instrument.
Interpolated Mappings for Musical Instruments
Organised Sound 7(2): 85-96.